Java SPI机制分析

SPI概述
SPI全称为(Service Provider Interface) ,是JDK内置的一种服务提供发现机制;主要被框架的开发人员使用,比如java.sql.Driver接口,数据库厂商实现此接口即可,当然要想让系统知道具体实现类的存在,还需要使用固定的存放规则,需要在classpath下的META-INF/services/目录里创建一个以服务接口命名的文件,这个文件里的内容就是这个接口的具体的实现类;下面以JDBC为实例来进行具体的分析。

JDBC驱动
1.准备驱动包

<dependency>
			<groupId>mysql</groupId>
			<artifactId>mysql-connector-java</artifactId>
			<version>5.1.47</version>
		</dependency>
		<dependency>
			<groupId>org.postgresql</groupId>
			<artifactId>postgresql</artifactId>
			<version>42.2.2</version>
		</dependency>
		<dependency>
			<groupId>com.microsoft.sqlserver</groupId>
			<artifactId>mssql-jdbc</artifactId>
			<version>7.0.0.jre8</version>
		</dependency>

分别准备了mysql,postgresql和sqlserver,可以打开jar,发现每个jar包的META-INF/services/都存在一个java.sql.Driver文件,文件里面存在一个或多个类名,比如mysql:

com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
com.mysql.fabric.jdbc.FabricMySQLDriver

提供的每个驱动类占据一行,解析的时候会按行读取,具体使用哪个会根据url来决定;

2.简单实例

String url = "jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/db3";
String username = "root";
String password = "root";
String sql = "update travelrecord set name=\'bbb\' where id=1";
Connection con = DriverManager.getConnection(url, username, password);

类路径下存在多个驱动包,具体在使用DriverManager.getConnection应该使用哪个驱动类会解析url来识别,不同的数据库有不同的url前缀;

3.驱动类加载分析
具体META-INF/services/下的驱动类是什么时候加载的,DriverManager有一个静态代码块:

    static {
        loadInitialDrivers();
        println("JDBC DriverManager initialized");
    }
	
	private static void loadInitialDrivers() {
        String drivers;
        try {
            drivers = AccessController.doPrivileged(new PrivilegedAction<String>() {
                public String run() {
                    return System.getProperty("jdbc.drivers");
                }
            });
        } catch (Exception ex) {
            drivers = null;
        }
        // If the driver is packaged as a Service Provider, load it.
        // Get all the drivers through the classloader
        // exposed as a java.sql.Driver.class service.
        // ServiceLoader.load() replaces the sun.misc.Providers()

        AccessController.doPrivileged(new PrivilegedAction<Void>() {
            public Void run() {

                ServiceLoader<Driver> loadedDrivers = ServiceLoader.load(Driver.class);
                Iterator<Driver> driversIterator = loadedDrivers.iterator();

                /* Load these drivers, so that they can be instantiated.
                 * It may be the case that the driver class may not be there
                 * i.e. there may be a packaged driver with the service class
                 * as implementation of java.sql.Driver but the actual class
                 * may be missing. In that case a java.util.ServiceConfigurationError
                 * will be thrown at runtime by the VM trying to locate
                 * and load the service.
                 *
                 * Adding a try catch block to catch those runtime errors
                 * if driver not available in classpath but it's
                 * packaged as service and that service is there in classpath.
                 */
                try{
                    while(driversIterator.hasNext()) {
                        driversIterator.next();
                    }
                } catch(Throwable t) {
                // Do nothing
                }
                return null;
            }
        });

        println("DriverManager.initialize: jdbc.drivers = " + drivers);

        if (drivers == null || drivers.equals("")) {
            return;
        }
        String[] driversList = drivers.split(":");
        println("number of Drivers:" + driversList.length);
        for (String aDriver : driversList) {
            try {
                println("DriverManager.Initialize: loading " + aDriver);
                Class.forName(aDriver, true,
                        ClassLoader.getSystemClassLoader());
            } catch (Exception ex) {
                println("DriverManager.Initialize: load failed: " + ex);
            }
        }
    }

在加载DriverManager类的时候会执行loadInitialDrivers方法,方法内通过了两种加载驱动类的方式,分别是:使用系统变量方式和ServiceLoader加载方式;系统变量方式其实就是在变量jdbc.drivers中配置好驱动类,然后使用Class.forName进行加载;下面重点看一下ServiceLoader方式,此处调用了load方法但是并没有真正去加载驱动类,而是返回了一个LazyIterator,后面的代码就是循环变量迭代器:

private static final String PREFIX = "META-INF/services/";

private class LazyIterator
        implements Iterator<S>
    {

        Class<S> service;
        ClassLoader loader;
        Enumeration<URL> configs = null;
        Iterator<String> pending = null;
        String nextName = null;

        private LazyIterator(Class<S> service, ClassLoader loader) {
            this.service = service;
            this.loader = loader;
        }

        private boolean hasNextService() {
            if (nextName != null) {
                return true;
            }
            if (configs == null) {
                try {
                    String fullName = PREFIX + service.getName();
                    if (loader == null)
                        configs = ClassLoader.getSystemResources(fullName);
                    else
                        configs = loader.getResources(fullName);
                } catch (IOException x) {
                    fail(service, "Error locating configuration files", x);
                }
            }
            while ((pending == null) || !pending.hasNext()) {
                if (!configs.hasMoreElements()) {
                    return false;
                }
                pending = parse(service, configs.nextElement());
            }
            nextName = pending.next();
            return true;
        }

        private S nextService() {
            if (!hasNextService())
                throw new NoSuchElementException();
            String cn = nextName;
            nextName = null;
            Class<?> c = null;
            try {
                c = Class.forName(cn, false, loader);
            } catch (ClassNotFoundException x) {
                fail(service,
                     "Provider " + cn + " not found");
            }
            if (!service.isAssignableFrom(c)) {
                fail(service,
                     "Provider " + cn  + " not a subtype");
            }
            try {
                S p = service.cast(c.newInstance());
                providers.put(cn, p);
                return p;
            } catch (Throwable x) {
                fail(service,
                     "Provider " + cn + " could not be instantiated",
                     x);
            }
            throw new Error();          // This cannot happen
        }
		......
	}

类中指定了一个静态常量PREFIX = “META-INF/services/”,然后和java.sql.Driver拼接组成了fullName,然后通过类加载器去获取所有类路径下java.sql.Driver文件,获取之后存放在configs中,里面的每个元素对应一个文件,每个文件中可能会存在多个驱动类,所以使用pending用来存放每个文件中的驱动信息,获取驱动信息之后在nextService中使用Class.forName加载类信息,并且指定不进行初始化;同时在下面使用newInstance对驱动类进行了实例化操作;每个驱动类中都提供了一个静态注册代码块,比如mysql:

    static {
        try {
            java.sql.DriverManager.registerDriver(new Driver());
        } catch (SQLException E) {
            throw new RuntimeException("Can't register driver!");
        }
    }

这里又实例化了一个驱动类,同时注册到DriverManager;接下来就是调用DriverManager的getConnection方法,代码如下:

 private static Connection getConnection(
        String url, java.util.Properties info, Class<?> caller) throws SQLException {
        /*
         * When callerCl is null, we should check the application's
         * (which is invoking this class indirectly)
         * classloader, so that the JDBC driver class outside rt.jar
         * can be loaded from here.
         */
        ClassLoader callerCL = caller != null ? caller.getClassLoader() : null;
        synchronized(DriverManager.class) {
            // synchronize loading of the correct classloader.
            if (callerCL == null) {
                callerCL = Thread.currentThread().getContextClassLoader();
            }
        }

        if(url == null) {
            throw new SQLException("The url cannot be null", "08001");
        }

        println("DriverManager.getConnection(\"" + url + "\")");

        // Walk through the loaded registeredDrivers attempting to make a connection.
        // Remember the first exception that gets raised so we can reraise it.
        SQLException reason = null;

        for(DriverInfo aDriver : registeredDrivers) {
            // If the caller does not have permission to load the driver then
            // skip it.
            if(isDriverAllowed(aDriver.driver, callerCL)) {
                try {
                    println("    trying " + aDriver.driver.getClass().getName());
                    Connection con = aDriver.driver.connect(url, info);
                    if (con != null) {
                        // Success!
                        println("getConnection returning " + aDriver.driver.getClass().getName());
                        return (con);
                    }
                } catch (SQLException ex) {
                    if (reason == null) {
                        reason = ex;
                    }
                }

            } else {
                println("    skipping: " + aDriver.getClass().getName());
            }

        }

        // if we got here nobody could connect.
        if (reason != null)    {
            println("getConnection failed: " + reason);
            throw reason;
        }

        println("getConnection: no suitable driver found for "+ url);
        throw new SQLException("No suitable driver found for "+ url, "08001");
    }

此方法主要是遍历之前注册的DriverInfo,拿着url信息去每个驱动类中建立连接,当然每个驱动类中都会进行url匹配校验,成功之后返回Connection,如果中途有失败的连接并不影响尝试新的驱动连接,遍历完之后还是无法获取连接,则抛出异常;

4.扩展
如果想扩展新的驱动类也很简单,只需要在类路径下创建META-INF/services/文件夹,同时在里面创建java.sql.Driver文件,在文件中写入具体的驱动类名称,当然此类需要继承java.sql.Driver接口类;例如实例中提供的TestDriver。

序列化实战
1.准备接口类

public interface Serialization {

	/**
	 * 序列化
	 * 
	 * @param obj
	 * @return
	 */
	public byte[] serialize(Object obj) throws Exception;

	/**
	 * 反序列化
	 * 
	 * @param param
	 * @param clazz
	 * @return
	 * @throws Exception
	 */
	public <T> T deserialize(byte[] param, Class<T> clazz) throws Exception;

	/**
	 * 序列化名称
	 * 
	 * @return
	 */
	public String getName();

}

2.准备实现类
分别准备JsonSerialization和ProtobufSerialization

3.接口文件
在META-INF/services/目录下创建文件com.spi.serializer.Serialization,内容如下:

com.spi.serializer.JsonSerialization
com.spi.serializer.ProtobufSerialization

4.提供Manager类

public class SerializationManager {

	private static Map<String, Serialization> map = new HashMap<>();

	static {
		loadInitialSerializer();
	}

	private static void loadInitialSerializer() {
		ServiceLoader<Serialization> loadedSerializations = ServiceLoader.load(Serialization.class);
		Iterator<Serialization> iterator = loadedSerializations.iterator();

		try {
			while (iterator.hasNext()) {
				Serialization serialization = iterator.next();
				map.put(serialization.getName(), serialization);
			}
		} catch (Throwable t) {
			t.printStackTrace();
		}
	}

	public static Serialization getSerialization(String name) {
		return map.get(name);
	}
}

提供类似DriverManager的SerializationManager类,在加载类的时候加载所有配置的序列化方式;提供一个getSerialization的今天方法类似getConnection;

总结
本文以JDBC驱动为实例,重点对使用ServiceLoader方式服务发现进行分析,同时提供了序列化的简单实战;dubbo也提供了类似的SPI方式,核心类是ExtensionLoader,比起java官方提供的ServiceLoader功能更强大,后续继续分析一下dubbo的SPI方式,然后进行一个对比。

示例代码地址
https://github.com/ksfzhaohui/blog
https://gitee.com/OutOfMemory/blog